The transient dynamic solver is used to calculate the time history of the
dynamic response of a structure subjected to any arbitrary forcing function and
initial conditions. Linear dynamic equilibrium equations are in the following
form: 

where


Mass matrix
Damping
matrix
Stiffness matrix
Nodal
displacement vector
Nodal
velocity vector
Nodal
acceleration vector
Load
vector

For the nonlinear transient dynamic solver, the above expression is modified to
include the effects of nonlinearities on the equilibrium. As in the nonlinear
transient dynamic solver the nonlinear equilibrium equations are always
linearised in each time step, the following discussion, based on the above
expression is still valid. 
Forcing Function 
Two types of loading conditions can be applied: dynamic loads and base
acceleration excitation.

Dynamic loads applied to the model are factored through the use of factor vs
time tables, which can be any time history. Loads can be point forces and
moments, element loads, body loads or thermal loads. Multiple load cases may be
combined to form a single loading condition. Each load case may included,
excluded or factored according to a factor vs time table.
Multiple freedom cases may also be included if the full system option is
used. The constant terms in the freedom cases may be factored in the same way
as the loads in the load cases. This provides support for time dependent
displacements.
Acceleration of the base of the model (i.e. the nodes with fixed freedoms)
may be specified to define the excitation. The time history can be arbitrary
and is specified in the factor vs time table. The excitation may act in any
general direction defined through the direction vector.

Initial Conditions

Three types of initial conditions can be specified: 
 A linear static solution which specifies the displacement of a structure
initially under certain static loads.
 A transient solution, which specifies the dynamic response of the structure
at a time instance. The solution will start from any selected time step.
 Initial velocity and acceleration of all free nodes in the structure.

Solution Techniques 
Two approaches to transient dynamic solutions are available: mode superposition
and full system.

 Mode Superposition
Using the mode superposition method, responses of the individual modes of the
structure are calculated separately and then combined to produce the total
response of the structure. This is only applicable to linear transient dynamic
analysis.
 In addition to the other advantages of the mode superposition technique,
this method offers more in a transient dynamic analysis. One of the advantages
is that modal damping can be used in addition to (or instead of) Rayleigh
damping. When experimental data are available, modal damping gives a more
accurate representation of the damping in the system.
 The mode superposition method is best suited to structures where the lower
frequencies dominate the response (i.e. earthquakes). Typically, 10 modes will
provide good accuracy for these problems. Modal superposition is not suitable
for problems such as shock loads or impacts where the higher frequency modes
are excited. In these cases, 50 or more modes may be required and the cost to
calculate this many modes can significantly offset the saving in the transient
solution. The most serious disadvantage of this approach is that it is not
capable of handling any nonlinearity in the solution.

 Full System
 This approach does not have the limitations of mode superposition, but can
be computationally very expensive, as all nodal displacements are numerically
integrated at the specified time steps. This method is also referred to as
direct integration.

The linear transient dynamic solver performs the following steps: 
 Initialises the nodal displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors
according to the specified initial conditions.
 For mode superposition calculates and assembles equivalent element force
vectors and external nodal force vectors. If base acceleration is included, the
global mass matrix is also formed for the calculation of the pseudo load
vector.
 For direct integration, calculates and assembles element stiffness, mass
and damping matrices, equivalent element force vectors and external nodal force
vectors. In the stiffness calculation, material temperature dependency is
considered. The element geometric stiffness matrix is also included if initial
conditions are used. Rayleigh damping and element material damping can be
included. Either consistent or lumped element equivalent load vectors can be
calculated according to the option setting. Constraints are also assembled in
this process, and the constant terms in enforced displacement and shrink links
are combined and applied. At the end of this assembly procedure, the three
global matrices in the equation of dynamic equilibrium are formed:


 If the full system approach is used, decomposes the global stiffness matrix
such that
 Loops through the specified time steps and calculates displacement,
velocity and acceleration using either the Wilson theta or Newmark beta method.
When base acceleration is applied, either relative or absolute values of
displacement, velocity and acceleration may be calculated.
 Calculates element results such as stress and strain.

The nonlinear transient dynamic solver performs the following steps:

 Initialises the nodal displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors
according to the specified initial conditions. For a restart run, all
quantities required for describing the current element deformation and/or
stress status are recovered from both the initial and the temporary solution
file.
 Starts a new time step and calculates the constants required for the time
integration if the time stepping is different from the previous one.
 Calculates and assembles the element stiffness matrices, equivalent element
force vectors and external nodal force vectors. In the stiffness calculation,
material temperature dependency is considered. Depending on whether material
and/or geometric nonlinearity is considered, the current material modulus and
geometry will be used. The element geometric stiffness matrix is also included
if the corresponding option is set. Either consistent or lumped element
equivalent load vectors can be calculated according to the option setting.
Constraints are also assembled in this process and the constant terms in
enforced displacement and shrink links are combined and applied. At the end of
this assembly procedure, the global stiffness, mass and damping matrices and
nodal force vector are formed.
 Uses the Newmark beta method to calculate the displacement,
velocity and acceleration vectors and then updates the current displacement
vector.
 Checks for convergence
Displacement norm
Residual force norm
where

and
are convergence tolerance on displacement and residual force,
and
are
norms of incremental and total displacement vectors,
is the
norm of the residual force vector at the first iteration of each time step and
is the
norm of the residual force vector in the current iteration.
If both of the convergence criteria are satisfied and there are more time
steps, the solution continues with the next step otherwise it stops. If either
of the criteria is not satisfied, the solution continues the integration and
iterates on the current step.

Notes

 The results of a transient analysis are provided as series of solutions for
discrete points in time throughout the time period of interest. The number and
spacing of the result sets can be controlled using the time steps in the solver
parameters. The results include the nodal displacements, velocity and
acceleration, as well as element stresses, strains and other quantities at that
particular time instance.
 The choice of the correct time step size is important to ensure that the
complete response of the structure is captured by the solution and that the
solution is stable and free from divergence. This is particularly important for
nonlinear solutions.
 In general the smaller the time step the more accurate the solution.
However, there are practical limits on how small the step can be, as more
solution steps will be required for a smaller time step and the running time
will normally increase accordingly. Therefore, a limit may be set by the time
required for the solution. The size of the time step is also limited by the
number of sets of results that can be physically stored. However, the latter
limit can be removed in Strand7 by using a periodical saving option.
 If the time step is too large then much of the higher frequency response of
the structure will be missed and the solution may not adequately represent the
real behaviour of the structure as shown below.

For more information on dynamic analysis, see Strand7 Webnotes  Linear / Dynamics and Strand7 Webnotes  Nonlinear / Dynamics.
